¿Por qué solo las gatas pueden tener 3 colores?

¿Por qué solo las gatas pueden tener 3 colores?


¿Si ves a un gato de lejos, puedes distinguir si es gata o gato? Si es de 3 colores, puedes apostar a que es gata. Y esto se debe a las diferencias genéticas.

 Los gatos pueden ser negros, blancos, anaranjados o bien, pueden presentar variantes (como gris, crema o marrón) y mezclas de estas tonalidades en su pelaje. Las gatas hembras pueden tener 3 colores, pero los gatos machos no, debido a una diferencia genética entre las hembras y los machos, la cual se da por los cromosomas.

Las características físicas de un organismo se dan según la información que posean en el núcleo de sus cromosomas. En los gatos, la información genética es transmitida por 38 pares de cromosomas, 19 del padre y 19 de la madre. Las hembras producen únicamente el cromosoma X en sus óvulos y los machos producen en su esperma tanto el X como el Y.

El gen que hace que el pigmento negro del pelaje sea naranja se llama O y solamente se presenta en el cromosoma femenino X. El gen O puede ser recesivo o dominante, pero no silencia totalmente al gen recesivo, por lo tanto, en los gatos pueden resultar las siguientes combinaciones de colores:

  • OO: combinación de dos genes dominantes naranjas, resultado = naranja
  • oo: combinación de dos genes recesivos naranjas, resultado =  no naranja
  • Oo: combinación de gen dominante naranja y gen recesivo naranja, resultado = naranja y no naranja = tricolor

 La combinación de dos genes naranjas, uno dominante y otro recesivo, solamente es posible en la combinación XX, es decir, en las hembras. Por lo tanto, solo las gatas pueden presentar los 3 colores definidos, los gatos siempre tendrán una mezcla de tonalidades. La excepción a esta regla se da cuando existen anormalidades cromosomáticas, mutaciones o hermafroditismo. Se estima que 1 entre 3.000 gatos de 3 colores es macho.

¿Y tú, tienes una gatita de 3 colores?

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